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Kamailio SIP Server Installation Notes
Welcome! This is an amazingly flexible, robust and secure SIP server
built on years of experience in several Open Source projects. It's a merge
of the SIP Express Router (SER) and the Kamailio (OpenSER) products produced
by a joint development team.
This memo gives you hints on how to set up the Kamailio quickly.
You can find a similar tutorial and many more on project's web site:
Table of Contents
1. Supported Architectures And Requirements
2. How-To Build Kamailio From The Source Code Distribution
2.1 Kamailio Fast Track Installation
2.2 Details Installing From Source Code
A) Build Commands
3. Quick-Start Installation Guide
A) Getting Help
B) Disclaimers
C) Quick Start
D) Kamailio With Persistent Data Storage
4. Troubleshooting
1. Supported Architectures And Requirements
Supported operating systems:
- Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, RedHat, CentOS, OpenSUSE, Gentoo, a.s.o.)
- FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Dragonfly BSD
- Solaris
- OS/X, Darwin
Note that some modules have dependencies on the Linux operating system.
This is clearly noted in the README files.
Partially supported
- Windows+Cygwin (core + static modules only, no IPv6, no
TCP, no dynamic modules)
Supported architectures
- i386, x86_64 (amd64), armv4l, sparc64, powerpc, powerpc64
Experimental architectures:
- mips1, mips2, sparc32, alpha
(for other architectures the Makefiles might need to be edited)
There are various configuration options defined in the Makefile.
- gcc or clang:
gcc >= 2.9x; 3.[12] recommended (it will work with older version
but it might require some options tweaking for best performance)
clang >= version 3.3
- bison or yacc (Berkeley Yacc)
- flex
- GNU make (on Linux this is the standard "make", on *BSD and Solaris it is
called "gmake") version >= 3.80 (recommended 3.81).
- sed and tr (used in the makefiles)
- GNU tar ("gtar" on Solaris) and gzip if you want "make tar" to work
- GNU install, BSD install or Solaris install if you want "make
install", "make bin", "make sunpkg" to work
- libmysqlclient & libz (zlib) if you want MySQL support (the db_mysql module)
- libxml2 if you want to compile the cpl-c (CPL support) or pa (presence)
- freeradius, radcli or libradiusclient-ng (> 5.0) if you need RADIUS support
(the auth_radius, acc_radius and misc_radius modules)
- libpq if you need PostgreSQL support (the db_postgres module)
- libexpat if you want the jabber gateway support (the jabber module) or the
XMPP gateway support
- libxml2 if you want to use the cpl-c (Call Processing Language) or
the presence modules (presence and pua*)
- libradius-ng -libs and devel headers- if you want to use functionalities
with radius support - authentication, accounting, group support, etc
- unixodbc - libs and devel headers - if you want UNIXODBC support as
DB underlayer
- libperl - libs and devel headers - if you want the perl connector to support
perl scripting from your config file (perl module)
- libsnmp9 - libs and devel headers - if you want SNMP client functionality
(SNMP AgentX subagent) for Kamailio
- libldap libs and devel headers v2.1 or greater - if you want LDAP support
- libpcre libs and devel headers - if you want to compile the lcr and dialplan
- libsctp devel headers - if you want to compile the SCTP transport in the core
- libssl devel headers (openssl project) - if you want to compile the TLS module
- libunistring - for the WebSocket module
- python and devel headers for the Python module
- jdk and gcj for Java module
- the jansson library for the jansson module used for JSON document handling
- libsqlite3 if you need SQLite support (the db_sqlite module)
Some modules have other requirements on third-party libraries. This is documented
in the README for the specific module.
OS Notes:
FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD: make sure gmake, bison or yacc & flex are installed.
FreeBSD 5.4:
If you want to compile all the modules, you will need the following packages:
- mysql-client-* (any version, install one of the mysql*-client ports) for
- postgresql-libpqxx-2.4.2_1 (/usr/ports/databases/postgresql-libpqxx) for
- expat-1.95.8 (/usr/ports/textproc/expat2) for libexpat
- libxml2-2.6.18 (/usr/ports/textproc/libxml2) for libxml2
- radiusclient-0.4.7 (/usr/ports/net/radiusclient) for libradiusclient-ng
- sqlite3-3.35.5 (/usr/ports/databases/sqlite3) for libsqlite3
NOTE: you'll need to add radiusclient_ng=4 to the gmake command line if you
use the 0.4.* version.
Compile example (all the modules and SIP server core in a tar.gz):
gmake bin radiusclient_ng=4 include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius postgres pa"
OpenBSD 3.7
- mysql-client-4.0.23 (/usr/ports/databases/mysql) for libmysqlclient
- expat-1.95.6 (/usr/ports/textproc/expat) for libexpat
- libxml-2.6.16p0 (/usr/ports/textproc/libxml) for libxml2
- radiusclient-ng-0.5.1 from
(you need to download and install it, since there is no "official"
openbsd port for it) for libradiusclient-ng
- sqlite3-3.35.5 (/usr/ports/databases/sqlite3) for libsqlite3
Compile example (all the modules and SIP server core in a tar.gz):
gmake bin include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius pa"
NetBSD 2.0
- mysql-client-4.1.12 (/usr/pkgsrc/databases/mysql4-client) for libmysqlclient
- expat-1.95.8nb2 (/usr/pkgsrc/textproc/expat) for libexpat
- libxml2-2.6.19 (/usr/pkgsrc/textproc/libxml2) for libxml2
- radiusclient-ng-0.5.1 (see OpenBSD)
- sqlite3-3.36.0 (/usr/pkgsrc/databases/sqlite3) for libsqlite
Compile example (all the modules and SIP server in a tar.gz):
gmake bin include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius pa"
Solaris 10
As above; you can use Solaris's yacc instead of bison. You might also
need gtar and ginstall. If you don't have ginstall you can use Solaris
install, just make sure it's in the PATH (it's usually in /usr/sbin) and
add INSTALL=install either to the environment or to the make command line
(e.g.: gmake INSTALL=install all).
Compile example (all the modules and SIP server in a tar.gz):
gmake bin INSTALL=install include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius postgres pa"
Kamailio is part of the official Debian distribution. You can download binary modules
directly using normal packet management.
Needed packages for compiling all the modules:
* Debian:
- libmysqlclient-dev for libmysqlclient
- libpq-dev for libpq
- libexpat1-dev for libexpat
- libxml2-dev for libxml2
- libradiusclient-ng-dev for libradiusclient
- libsqlite3-dev for libsqlite
- other libraries are needed for some other modules,
see README of the module you want to use
Kamailio have APT deb repositories that allow you to
install the binaries easily - see the web site for more details:
Cygwin (alpha state, partial support)
make sure make, bison, flex, minires and minires-devel (needed for the
resolver functions) are installed.
Only building Kamailio's core and some static modules is supported for now.
Stuff known not to work:
- IPv6 (cygwin doesn't support it yet)
- TCP (the tcp code heavily depends on file descriptor passing
between processes, which is not yet supported by cygwin)
- dynamic modules (non statically linked -- not supported because
backlinking doesn't work in windows by design)
Compile example (all the modules and Kamailio in a tar.gz):
make bin include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius postgres pa"
2. Howto Build Kamailio From Source Code Distribution
(NOTE: if make doesn't work try gmake instead)
2.1 Kamailio Fast Track Installation
If you are familiar with Unix/Linux build tools aready and you installed
the required dependencies, then you can just follow this section, otherwise
skip over it.
To get Kamailio installed, in the folder with source code run:
make cfg
make all
make install
If you want to install with additional modules, for example with mysql and
tls, run:
make include_modules="db_mysql tls" cfg
make all
make install
2.2 Details - Installing From Source Code
Build Commands
Kamailio is split in four main parts: The core, the modules, the
utilities, and the various scripts/examples. When you build, you can decide to build
only the core, the modules, both, or all.
* Compile Kamailio core only:
Compile modules except some explicitly excepted (see below)
make modules - all modules in the modules/ directory
make modules-all or make every-module - all the modules
* Compile all:
make all
* Explicitly excepted modules:
By default make all will not build modules that require external libraries or
that are considered to be "experimental". For example, modules that have external
dependencies are: db_mysql, jabber, cpl-c, auth_radius, group_radius, uri_radius,
avp_radius, db_postgres, db_berkeley, carrierroute, ...
Including groups of modules:
Instead of compiling the default modules only, you can specify groups of
modules to include, according to their status:
- standard - Modules in this group are considered a standard part of Kamailio
(due to widespread usage) but they have no dependencies (note that some of
these interplay with external systems. However, they don't have compile
or link dependencies).
- db - Modules in this group use databases and need a database driver to run.
Included are drivers for the text mode db (dbtext) and for dumping
large amount of data to files (db_flatstore). See also the mysql,
postgres, or sqlite groups.
- standard_dep - Modules in this group are considered a standard part of Kamailio
(due to widespread usage) but they have dependencies that must be satisfied
for compilation.
NOTE! All presence modules (dialog, pa, presence_b2b, rls, xcap) have been
included in this group due to interdependencies
- stable - Modules in this group satisfy specific or niche applications,
and are considered stable for production use. They may or may not have dependencies
- experimental - Modules in this group are either not complete, untested, or
without enough reports of usage to allow the module into the stable group.
They may or may not have dependencies.
There is another set of groups mainly used by Kamailio, where modules
are grouped based on Debian packaging rules. For example:
- kstandard - Kamailio standard modules
- kpresence - Kamailio SIMPLE presence server modules
* To compile core with standard modules:
make group_include="standard" all
* To compile all modules (provided you have all the required libraries installed) use:
make group_include="standard standard-dep stable experimental" all
There are also in addition some "convenience" groups:
mysql - Include all the db modules dependent and the MySQL db driver
postgres - Include all the db modules and the PostgreSQL db driver
sqlite - Include all the db modules and the SQLite db driver
radius - Include all modules on radiusclient
presence - Include all the presence modules
Ex. to make a standard installation with MySQL, use:
make group_include="standard mysql" all
In addition to group_include (or instead), you can use
include_modules="modA modB"
to specify exactly the modules you want to include, ex.
make include_modules="mymodule" modules
You can also explicitly skip modules using skip_modules. Let's say you want all
the standard and standard-dep modules except domain:
make group_include="standard standard-dep" skip_modules="domain" all
NOTE!!! As this mechanism is very powerful, you may be uncertain which
modules that will be included. Just replace all (or modules) with print-modules
and you will see which modules will be included and excluded, ex:
make print-modules
will show which modules are excluded by default.
If you want to install or to build a binary package (a tar.gz with
Kamailio core and the modules), substitute "all" in the above command with
"install" or "bin".
* More compile examples:
- compile with profiling
make PROFILE=-pg all
- compile debug mode version
make mode=debug all
- compile debug version with profiling
make mode=debug PROFILE=-pg all
- compile only the print module
make modules=modules/print modules
- compile by default only the print module, in debugging mode and with
make cfg modules=modules/print mode=debug PROFILE=-pg
make all
- change & save the modules list without rebuilding the whole config
(so that already compiled modules won't be re-compiled by
make all/make modules):
make modules-cfg include_modules="mysql postgress"
- change only the compile/build options, without changing the modules list:
make cfg-defs CPU=ultrasparc PROFILE=-pg
- compile by default all the usual modules + mysql and postgres, optimized
for pentium-m and for space (saves both the build options and the module
make cfg include_modules="mysql postgres" CPU=pentium-m CC_EXTRA_OPTS=-Os
make all
- compile all the "default" modules except textops and vm
make skip_modules="textops vm" modules
- save the above option in the make config, so that all make commands
will use it by default:
make cfg skip_modules="textops vm"
- compile all default modules and include uri_radius (not compiled by default):
make include_modules="uri_radius" modules
- compile all the modules from the modules subdirectory (even the one excluded
by default):
make exclude_modules="" modules
- compile all the modules from the modules subdirectory excluding vm:
make exclude_modules=vm modules
make exclude_modules="" skip_modules=vm modules
- compile with the "tm" module statically linked and with profiling
make static_modules=tm PROFILE=-pg all
- compile with gcc-3.2 instead of gcc
make CC=gcc-3.2 all
CC=gcc-3.2 make all
Make targets:
Make Local Build Config:
* make cfg or make config - force config and module list regeneration
make cfg include_modules=mysql mode=debug
All future make invocations will include the mysql module and will build in debug mode
Note: If config.mak doesn't exist (e.g. initial checkout or after a make
proper) or if Makefile.defs was changed, the config will be re-generated
automatically by the first make command. For example:
make cfg include_modules=db_mysql; make all
is equivalent to
rm config.mak modules.lst; make include_modules=db_mysql.
* make cfg-defs (force config regeneration, but don't touch the module list)
make cfg-defs CPU=ultrasparc CC_EXTRA_OPTS=-Os PROFILE=-pg
make modules-cfg
make modules-list
saves the module list, without regenerating the build config
make modules-list include_modules="tls" skip_modules="print"
* make clean - clean the base and modules too
* make proper - clean also the dependencies and the config, but not the module list
* make distclean - the same as proper
* make maintainer-clean - clean everything, including make's config, saved
module list, auto generated files, tags, *.dbg a.s.o
* make clean-all - clean all the modules in modules/*
* make proper-all - like make proper but for all the modules in modules/*
Config clean:
* make clean-cfg - cleans the compile config
* make clean-modules-cfg - cleans the modules list
Reduced clean:
* make local-clean - cleans only the core, no libs, utils or modules
* make clean-modules - like make clean, but cleans only the modules
* make clean-libs - like make clean, but cleans only the libs
* make clean-utils - like make clean, but cleans only the utils
* make proper
optional: make cfg <various cfg. options that should be saved>
* make proper-modules - like make proper, but only for modules
* make proper-libs - like make proper, but only for libs
* make proper-utils - like make proper, but only for utils
* make
or gmake on non-Linux systems
* make modules
or make modules exclude_modules="CVS print" etc.
Other Make Targets:
Make tags:
make TAGS
Create a tar.gz with the sources (in ../):
make tar
Create a tar.gz with the binary distribution (in ../):
make bin
Create a gzipped solaris package (in ../):
make sunpkg
Create debian packages (in ../):
make deb
Regenerate the README for all the "default" modules (include_modules,
skip_modules a.s.o can be used to alter the module list).
Generates a manpage for all the modules that support it (.xml file in the
module directory).
make man
Generates README file for modules/foo.
make modules=modules/foo modules-readme
make prefix=/usr/local install
Note: If you use prefix parameter in make install then you also need
to use this parameter in previous make commands, i.e. make, make modules,
or make all. If you fail to do this then Kamailio will look for the default
configuration file in a wrong directory, because the directory of the
default configuration file is hardcoded into Kamailio during compile time.
When you use a different prefix parameter when installing then the
directory hard coded in Kamailio and the directory in which the file will be
installed by make install will not match. (You can specify exact location
of the configuration file using -f parameter of Kamailio).
For example, if you do the following:
make all
make prefix=/ install
Then the installation will put the default configuration file into
/etc/kamailio/kamailio.cfg (because prefix is /),
but Kamailio will look for the file in /usr/local/etc/kamailio/kamailio.cfg
(because there was no prefix parameter make all and /usr/local is the default value of prefix).
The workaround is trivial, use the same parameters in all make commands:
make prefix=/ all
make prefix=/ install
or save the desired prefix in the make config (e.g.: make cfg prefix=/).
That applies to other make parameters as well (for example parameters
"modules" or "excluded_modules").
3. Quick-Start Installation Guide
A) Getting Help
This guide gives you instructions on how to set up the Kamailio
on your box quickly. In case the default configuration does not fly, please
check the documentation at the Kamailio web site to learn how to configure Kamailio for your site.
If the documentation does not resolve your problem you may try contacting
our user forum by E-mail at -- that is the
mailing list of the Kamailio community. To participate in the mailing list,
please subscribe at the following web address:
B) Disclaimers
Note well the default "quick-start" configuration is very simple in order
to be easily installable. It provides minimum features. Particularly,
authentication is by default disabled, which means anyone can register using
any name with the server. (This is on purpose to avoid installation
dependencies on a database, which is needed for storing user credentials.)
C) Quick Start
The following step-by step guide gives you instructions how to install the
SQL-free distribution of Kamailio. If you need persistence and
authentication, then you have to install additional database support --
proceed to section D) after you are finished with C).
1) Download an RPM or Debian package from the links on the wiki
If you don't use an rpm or debian based distribution, try our tar.gz'ed
If you use Solaris 8 you can try our solaris package.
If you use Gentoo Linux you do not have to download a package.
2) Install the package
rpm -i <package_name>
dpkg -i <package_name>
gunzip <package_name>.gz ; pkgadd -d <package_name>
pkg_add package_name
3) Start the server
/etc/init.d/kamailio start
Kamailio is started automatically after the install
(in case something fails you can start it with '/etc/init.d/kamailio start')
the tar.gz does not include an init.d script, you'll have to create one of
your own or adapt one from the source distribution (pkg/debian/init.d,
pkg/kamailio/rpm/kamailio.init, pkg/kamailio/deb/debian/kamailio.init, a.s.o.)
You can start Kamailio directly with
4) Optionally, watch server's health using the kamctl utility
- to do so, first set the environment variable SIP_DOMAIN to your domain
name, e.g., in Bourne shell, call
export SIP_DOMAIN=""
- if you are using other than 'localhost' mysql server for maintaining
subscriber database, change the variable 'SQL_HOST' to the proper
host name in the kamctl script
- run the kamctl utility
/usr/sbin/kamctl moni
/usr/local/sbin/kamctl moni (if you installed Kamailio from a
tar.gz or solaris package)
5) Connect SIP phones
Register with the server using your favorite SIP User Agent (phone).
In most cases, you need to set the following options:
Proxy server: host name of your server
Domain: the sip domain your server is configured to handle
User name: the account name for your device
Auth user: the ID used for authentication
Secret/Password: The configured authentication password
D) Kamailio With Persistent Data Storage
The default configuration is very simple and features many simplifications.
In particular, it does not authenticate users and loses User Location database
on reboot. To provide persistence, keep user credentials and remember users'
locations across reboots, Kamailio can be configured to use a database, like MySQL.
Before you proceed, you need to make sure MySQL is installed on your box. Your
MySQL server must be configured to deal with a large number of
connection. To increase it, set the following line in [mysqld] section
of your my.ini configuration file:
set-variable = max_connections=500
1) Download the package containing mysql support for Kamailio from the links
you find on:
(rpm and deb provided, most of the binary tar.gz distributions and the
solaris package include it; if it is not present you'll have to rebuild
from the source).
2) install the package
rpm -i <package_name>
dpkg -i <package_name>
emerge kamailio
(if do not want to put 'mysql' into your USE variable you can type:
USE="mysql" emerge kamailio)
3) create MySQL tables for Kamailio
- if you have a previously installed Kamailio on your system, use
/usr/local/sbin/kamdbctl reinstall
to convert your Kamailio database into new structures
- otherwise, if this is your very first installation, use
/usr/local/sbin/kamdbctl create
to create Kamailio database structures
(you will be prompted for password of MySql "root" user)
4) configure Kamailio to use SQL
uncomment all lines in configuration file kamailio.cfg which are related to authentication:
- loadmodule ""
- loadmodule ""
- loadmodule ""
- modparam("usrloc", "db_mode", 2)
- modparam("auth", "calculate_ha1", yes)
- modparam("auth_db", "password_column", "password")
- if (!www_authorize("", "subscriber")) {
www_challenge("", "0");
5) be sure to replace realm, the first parameter in www_* actions,
with name of your server; some broken UAC implementations don't
authenticate otherwise; the authentication command in your
configuration script should look then like this:
if (!www_authorize("", "subscriber")) {
www_challenge("", "0");
6) restart the server
/etc/init.d/kamailio restart
7) you can now start managing the server using the kamctl utility;
you need to first set the environment variable SIP_DOMAIN to your
local SIP realm, e.g.,
export SIP_DOMAIN=""
a) watch the server status using 'kamctl moni'
b) try to login with your SIP client as user 'admin' with password 'heslo'
c) try adding new users using
'kamctl add <username> <password>'
4. Troubleshooting
Q: SIP requests are replied by Kamailio with "483 Too Many Hops" or
"513 Message Too Large"
A: In both cases, the reason is probably an error in request routing script
which caused an infinite loop. You can easily verify whether this happens
by watching SIP traffic on loopback interface. A typical reason for
misrouting is a failure to match local domain correctly. If a server
fails to recognize a request for itself, it will try to forward it to
current URI in believe it would forward them to a foreign
domain. Alas, it forwards the request to itself again. This continues
to happen until value of max_forwards header field reaches zero or
the request grows too big. Solutions is easy: make sure that domain
matching is correctly configured. A quick way to achieve that is to
introduce a config option to ser.cfg or kamailio.cfg: alias=domainname,
where domainname shall be replaced with name of domain, which you wish to
server and which appears in request-URIs.
Q: Where to report issues?
A: Use bug tracker at:
Q: Any F.A.Q. that could be helpful to check before reporting an issue?
A: See: